D5.9: Final performance of the optimized CaL processes in full scale cement plants using validated reactor models

The purpose of this deliverable is to present and analyze the performance of a cement plant with the integrated calcium-looping (CaL) system and compare it, through suitable key performance indicators, with reference cement plant without CO2 capture and with other benchmark CCS technologies. The baseline cement plant, also used as reference in the CEMCAP project, is based on the Best Available Technique (BAT) standard as defined in the European BREF-Document (Best Available Technique Reference) for the manufacture of cement (Schorcht et al., 2013). Mass and energy balances of all the configurations proposed have been simulated using the proprietary code GS (GECOS, 2016) developed by Politecnico di Milano.
The highly integrated CaL system using Entrained Flow Reactors (Integrated CaL configuration) is presented and analyzed in detail from the energy-environmental point of view. The technologies chosen as a reference for reducing emissions in the cement industry are: (i) the cement kiln coupled with the CaL system with circulating fluidized bed reactors (Tail end CaL configuration), (ii) the cement kiln with both the pre-calciner and the rotary kiln operating in oxy-combustion mode (Full Oxyfuel configuration), and (iii) the cement kiln with only the pre-calciner operating in oxy-combustion mode (Partial Oxyfuel configuration).
The comparative analysis highlights the main strengths and weaknesses of each technology from the point of view of equivalent primary energy consumption, net electricity demand, equivalent CO2 emissions and SPECCA index. To corroborate the analysis on the integrated calcium-looping (CaL) system, the greenfield implementation of the technology is studied; this has brought out how constructing a new cement plant based on the integrated CaL system would result in a reduction of 11% in fuel consumption with respect to the retrofitted configuration.
Finally, as a further way to reduce fossil carbon emissions, the use of alternative fuels (RDF with a biogenic carbon content of 32%) was evaluated in both the reference cement plant and in the highly integrated CaL system with two different shares of penetration in the fuel mix (100% and 60%) against the 100% coal-based configuration. The application of the integrated CaL technology coupled with the use of AF demonstrated in both cases reductions in CO2 equivalent emissions greater than 100%