D7.3: Regional and national regulations, gaps and recommendations for CCUS scenarios
CO2 storage, transport and utilization costs could depend on national and regional regulations. For example, CO2 storage monitoring costs, which depends on the requirements for monitoring, should be included into the storage costs. Most of the EU countries implemented EU CCS Directive by 2013. CO2 use options were not included into EU CCS Directive (2009), but some CO2 use issues appeared in Monitoring and Reporting Guidelines under the EU ETS Directive (Commission Decision 2007/589/EC and its amendment Commission Decision 2010/345/EU). CCS laws should be applied together with four guidelines to CCS Directive, EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and its Monitoring and Reporting Guidelines.
International and national regulations related to CCUS technology and their national implementations are compared for five countries (Italy, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia) involved in the planned CCUS scenarios of the CLEANKER project. Only Russia has not ratified yet Paris Climate Agreement. Latvia, Lithuania and Russia are not yet parties of the London Protocol. National GHG and CO2 fossil emissions are compared with the base 1990 year and their climate and energy strategic targets are discussed. Russia is one of the largest emitters and Estonia has one of the highest CO2 emissions per capita in the world. The climate strategic targets should be increased in all the studied countries to reach the Paris targets and CCUS technology should be included in the list of technological priorities together with renewables and other options in all the countries and in the BSR. CO2 use options in the studied countries include CO2 use for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Geothermal Energy Recovery and mineral carbonation using waste materials should be used in synergy with CO2 storage and should compose business cases in both Italian and Baltic Scenarios. Additional CCUS regulations and political incentives, national, industrial and EU financial support are needed to start the first full CCUS projects in Italy, Baltic States and Russia. Educational and increasing public awareness activities supported by academic and research institutions and media support to explain benefits of climate change mitigation are needed for both scenarios and in the all countries.